According to jurnalism development, there are some phases which being parts of history of jurnalism.
In the World
1. Nuh AS
Purportedly, when a big flood attacked the earth or the end of ice Age, sign of jurnalism has been built. Nuh AS need the accurate information about land condition. So, there was an animal which was sent accidently, yet can be trusted because it has ability “magnetise radar” and little brain as navigation tool in its nose. It is a pigeon. Perhaps the pigeon was an investigation reporter that was asked to find water condition, whether it’s already ebbed or not. The pigeon was flying around until it found olive branch that are in ocean. The branch was pecked by it then was brought to Nuh AS so that he knew about accurate condition of water.
2. Eumenes Note (363 BC)
Eumenes is a Greek general and scholar. He had made the story of famous figure in that era, like Alexander the Great to Aristoteles.
3. Julius Caesar era (100-44 BC)
Julius continued the previous Kings tradition to tell senate result on the announcement board, Acta Diurna. Julius thought, even he has infinite authority, he must got initiation from Roma citizens. The name of Jurnalism itself comes from word diurnalis or those who are an senate writer.
4. King Pao in China
The next written tradition was continued in China. The first press media was finally born, King Pao. It is functioned to spread Caesar’s command.
5. Printing Press by Guttenberg (1450)
Guttenberg successfully made a printing press which brought jurnalism world to be a 100% percents. At this time, the very first mass media had been born not only for the Kings but also for all citizens named Gazzeta in Venecia. In North America, press development followed unique history of England colonization. American colonial made name of jurnalism as a news search activity. Meanwhile in England itself, appeared Oxford Gazzete. Name ‘newspaper’ has started to be used replaced Gazzete.
6. 18th-20th Century
In the beginning of Industry revolution, Descartes era after made Europe brighter with his philosophy, jurnalism started to be seen as a new knowledge in social. Karl Bucjer and Max Webber in Basel University, Swiss introduced the new chapter of press media science, Zeitungkunde in 1884. In North America, was built a school in jurnalism major, Columbia School of Jurnalism in 1912 by Joseph Pulitzer. In 20th century, sooner or later, expretise and profession became intergrate. Science and theory of jurnalism was getting better, codes of ethic was born, news release technic was more spread. The famous names like Hunter S. Thompson, Hearts or Tom Wolfe was developing jurnalism as conglomeration and technic.
1. In 18th Century by The Dutch
Jurnalism in Indonesia has been known from 18th century (1776). At that time, a press media named Bataviasche Nouvelles was published by the control of Dutches. In 1776, in Jakarta published Vendu Niews press media which give priority to auction news.
2. In 19th Century, The Dutch published Press Media for Natives
Entering 19th century, published press media which is still managed by The Dutches for Dutches reader or natives who understand Dutch that is only a small part. Meanwhile press media for natives started exsist in 1854 when Bianglala magazine was published, then was followed by Bromartani in 1885. Both of them is in Weltevreden and in 1856 published Soerat Kabar Bahasa Melajoe in Surabaya.
3. In 20th Century, Indonesia has Their Own First Press Media
History of press jurnalism 20th century was marked by appearance of the first press media own Indonesia named Medan Prijaji which was published in Bandung. Medan Prijaji was owned and managed by Tirto Hadisurjo or Raden Mas Djokomono. He is well-known as pioner that made bases of modern jurnalism in Indonesia, both way how to news release and publiced article and advertisment.
4. After Independence Periode
After independence periode in 1945, Indonesia press has a good time. In Jakarta and other cities have appeared new press media. Five years later or starting from 1950, Indonesia press tempted in politic practical world. They are more role player as suporter of big partis. They are consciously choose to be a speaker also act like party which they like and support.
5. President Dekrit, 1 July 1959
In this periode, national press faced a bad time. Every company which published press was obligated having publish licence certificate (SIT). According to a press master, 1st October 1958 can be called as the death date of Indonesia press freedom.
6. Reformation Orde
Appereance of reformation orde since 12PM Thusday, 21th May 1998 after Soeharto handed his potition over to his vice BJ Habibie, it was welcomed happily by all of Indonesian citizens. After that, Basic Press Law No.21/1998 was changed to Basic Press Law No.40/1999. By Law and the new goverment, whoever they are can published and managed one press organization.
Pers Indonesia Menggenggam Bara, is the title which showed in Harian Pagi Kompas, 7 Februari 2005 edition and 9 Februari 2005 is known as the day of Press was born.